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All legal systems deal with the same basic issues, but jurisdictions categorise and identify their legal topics in different ways. A common distinction is that between “public law” , and “private law” . In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations, while trusts law is dealt with under statutory regimes or international conventions.

  • Universitas Gadjah Mada with its eighteen faculties consists of more than 50 thousand students combination of local students from many regions in Indonesia and also international students around the world.
  • In the UK the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review.
  • Lord King LC was worried that trustees might exploit opportunities to use trust property for themselves instead of looking after it.
  • Law and commerceCompany law sprang from the law of trusts, on the principle of separating ownership of property and control.
  • At the Law Center, through clinics and volunteer opportunities, students helped local residents facing housing insecurity.
  • Personal property, refers to everything else; movable objects, such as computers, cars, jewelry or intangible rights, such as stocks and shares.

More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour law in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes, when statute does not provide immunity. In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to specific acts, such as killing in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th-century English case of R v Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of “necessity”. Three crew members and Richard Parker, a 17-year-old cabin boy, were stranded on a raft. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives.

Common law and equity

It also forms the basis for the Law News codes of most countries of continental Europe and has played an important role in the creation of the idea of a common European culture (Stein, Roman Law in European History, 2, 104–107). In the 18th century, Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics. The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and U.S. antitrust law.

Faculty and Scholarship

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Meaning of law in English

King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, also revered as the god of justice. Hugo Grotius, the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason. Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws “be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature”. Jeremy Bentham and his student Austin, following David Hume, believed that this conflated the “is” and what “ought to be” problem. Bentham and Austin argued for law’s positivism; that real law is entirely separate from “morality”.

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